Practical Guide - Dictionary of Real Estate Terms

Acceptance - approval of a building or part that required a permit to use. The decision of the relevant building authority that the building meets the relevant standards for buildings, sanitary and fire-fighting equipment and that it allows its use for the purposes for which it was approved.

Affiliate co-ownership - ownership where there are multiple property owners and each of which has an ideal share of real estate.

Agricultural land - land intended for agricultural production.​

Annuity - represents a fixed installment repaid at regular intervals for a given period to cover a long-term debt, consisting of a fixed debt repayment and interest; only its internal structure changes and during the repayment the interest payment rate falls in the annuity installment and the share of the principal is increasing. For cooperative flats, this is the amount to repay the low-percentage credit that the cooperative pays for the construction or purchase of the house.​

Apartment - a room or a set of rooms which, according to the decision of the building office, meet the requirements for permanent housing and are designed for that purpose by their layout and equipment.

Apartment that is under construction - a room or a set of rooms designated in accordance with the building permit for housing if it is built in a house with apartments and non-residential premises that is at least in a stage of construction, that it is already enclosed outside by the perimeter walls and the roof structure.

Appraisal proceedings - proceedings in which the building authority examines whether the construction was carried out in accordance with the documentation verified by the building authority in the construction procedure and whether the construction procedures were followed, its use would not endanger public interests in terms of protection of the life and health of persons.​

Attorney-in-custody - saving of money made by the buyer for the seller to a third party (lawyer) before, for example, enters into the land register. Attorney-at-law serves to increase certainty and confidence that the parties will duly fulfill what they have agreed upon.

Auction - a form of trading of goods or services where the price is not predetermined, but is determined only during the auction, where two parties - buyers, sellers. During the auction, bidders submit their bids until the goods or service is finally attached to the best bidder. This participant thus acquires the right and obligation to close the purchase contract for this price on the subject of the auction. The auction is a wholly voluntary matter, and the owner of the property chooses it as an alternative way of selling. The auction can take place entirely on the Internet, making it open to more people.

Auction (another meaning) - is a public negotiation whose purpose is the transfer of ownership or other right to the subject of the auction. At auction, the auctioneer turns to a predetermined circle of people at a predetermined location and time. The person who makes the highest bid will be the property of the auctioneer after the auction has been granted - this is only valid if the auctioneer subsequently pays the price of the auction. Only the auctioneer who has a license approved by the Ministry for Regional Development of the Czech Republic can do so from the legal point of view.

Auction Security - the amount that is made before the auction is made up by each auction participant at a specified amount. In the case of auction, it serves to secure future commitments.

Auctioneer - a natural person registered in the Trade Register, a legal entity registered in the Commercial Register or a competent state administration body.​

Bank Guarantee - is a written statement by the bank that it will satisfy the creditor up to a certain amount of money according to the content of the guarantee certificate if the debtor fails to fulfill his obligation or the other conditions set out in the guarantee certificate are not met. The bank guarantee represents the type of liability and one of the means of securing the obligation. The basis is a warranty card in which the parties determine the extent of the liability and other conditions attached thereto.

Blockhouse - a house with (rented) flats

Building - An above-ground permanent structure that is connected to the ground by a solid base and is spatially concentrated and externally enclosed by perimeter walls and roof structures with at least two spatially closed separate utility spaces (excluding halls). By the owner's decision, a section with a separate entrance can also be considered a building if it is individually marked with a descriptive number and is structurally technically arranged so that it can fulfill the basic function of the building independently.​

Building that is under construction - a building that is at least in a stage of construction, that the technical and functional layout of the first above-ground floor is already apparent, unless it has been assigned a registration number or a registration number.​

Building plot - building plot is a plot registered in the type of land as a built-up area and a courtyard.​

Building permit - permission of the building by the building office, which is a necessary prerequisite for the commencement of building activity. In particular, the building office ensures the protection of public interests in the construction and use of the building, the complexity of the construction, the observance of construction requirements for construction, or other regulations and technical standards.​

Built-up area - The territory defined by the land-use plan.

Built-up area (house) - The area designated for building in a land-use plan or in territorial development rules. Floor plan of the first floor in m2. (Always correctly stated only on the land register and for each immovable thing differently - sometimes included in the yard, sometimes the front garden, etc., but it is always "built-up area and courtyard")​

Built-up building site - a land registered in the land register as a building plot and other land parcels, usually under common fencing, forming a coherent whole with residential and commercial buildings.

Built-up plot of land - a plot of land built around a block of flats, surrounded by a residential building.

Cadastral map - a large-scale map containing fields of fields, landscapes and a description of real estates registered in the cadastral area that are the subject of the land registry. It forms a set of geodetic information of the Land Register.​

Cadastral office - office managing the real estate cadastre​.

Cadastral Territory - Basic Territorial Technical Unit. In the Land Register, the statistics are denoted by the same name and by the system by different numbers. The cadastral area is usually the only territory or one of several municipalities or towns.​

Client Bonity - The ability of the loan applicant to meet its obligations and to pay a regular (usually monthly) loan repayment on time and properly. When calculating the creditworthiness / ability to meet its obligations, the applicant's household income and other available funds are taken into account in view of the amount of regular monthly repayments of all loans (including the required mortgage).

Co-ownership - Ownership of two or more people to one common thing at the same time. Co-ownership can be determined ideally (in terms of shares) but also in real terms (the co-owner has a designated part that belongs to him).​

Consumer credit - a loan to individuals and households to purchase long-term consumption items and to pay for a particular type of service.​

Commercial real estate - a building designed primarily for offices or shops​.

Commission - Business Medal Remuneration. Fixed amount or percentage of trade value.

Common property of spouses - the property acquired by one of the spouses during the duration of the marriage, which the spouses own each half, except for property acquired through inheritance, gift, restitution, personal property or property acquired by one of the spouses in conjunction with a contractual agreement drawn up between the spouses, which governs the rights to property acquired during the marriage, and such property is considered to belong to the exclusive property of one of the spouses.​

Construction - All construction works that are built by construction or assembly technology, regardless of their construction, used construction products, materials and construction, for purpose of use and duration. Temporary building is a building in which the building office will pre-limit its duration. A construction product is also considered to be a building. The building that serves advertising purposes is a building for advertising. (Section 2 (3) of Act No. 183/2006 Coll.)​

Contractual penalty - agreed amount in the contract to be paid in case of breach of contract terms.​

Cooperative apartment - an apartment owned by a cooperative to which the co-owner has the right to lease under the rights and obligations associated with membership of the cooperative.

Creditor - a person entitled to claim performance by the debtor. He has a claim against the debtor, owed money.​

Debt Consolidation - means the conversion of the repayment period and the merger of multiple receivables. Usually, the short-term debt is converted into a long-term (consolidated) debt with a change in payment terms (interest rate).​

Descriptive number - The number that identifies in the village any individual building of a permanent character that is separated from another building. Each building is marked with only one descriptive number.

Developer - Developer Company - Company organizing construction. An investor who designs, builds and finances construction.​

Deposit - the composition of the part of the underlying money (money guarantee)​.

Depozitum - deposit in the monetary institution.

Disposable payment - a repayment outside the repayment schedule, which repays the entire balance of the loan (including agreed fees and interest).

Doublehouse - two houses, adjacent to one wall, are built according to the same design, or where the location is mirrored.

Energy intensity of the building - the calculated amount of energy required to cover the energy consumption associated with the use of the building.

Energy Performance Demonstration Certificate - A document that informs you of the total energy performance of a building or a whole building. The total energy intensity of a building is determined by the total annual energy supplied to the building needed for heating, ventilation, cooling, air conditioning, hot water preparation and lighting in its standardized use of the balance sheet.​

Electronic auction - a way of evaluating bids where individual vendors can improve their initial bids to win an engagement. For the contracting authority, this usually involves a reduction in the resulting price or the improvement of the terms offered. Tenders are automatically evaluated by the system at an electronic auction and the order of bids is determined continuously. The auction takes place in a virtual auction hall.

Estimation of real estate - a natural or legal person who can process valuation of the market value of the property.​

Estimate of the property price - determination of the total value of the property. If the nature of the matter so requires (especially at higher values), the court (the State notary) will be appointed by the forensic expert. Estimation is also required for the contractual transfer and sale of privately owned properties.

Execution - an involuntary, enforced act involving seizure and subsequent sale of movable and immovable property or rights and subsequent monetization by public auction.

Exclusive Sale Agreement - Contractor undertakes under this contract that the subject specified in the contract will not be delivered to a person other than the buyer in a particular area. This agreement guarantees exclusivity.​

Exclusivity - an exclusive right which is underpinned by a contract that only one company may carry out a certain activity (for example, the right of a real estate agent to mediate the sale of immovable property).

Expert opinion - a professional work drawn up by an expert or an expert institution fulfilling the requirements of the assessment. It determines the value of valued assets according to the requirements of the Property Valuation Act or according to the court's requirements. However, the task of an expert opinion may not only be the assessment of the value of the assets but also the expert answers to the questions of the contracting authority. However, the processor must always respect the provisions of the Property Valuation Act and must have appropriate expertise. Each expert's report must also include an expert's clause describing the extent of the expert's authorization, the identification of his appointment by the expert, and the number of the expert's report or the expert report under which the opinion is entered in the expert journal.​

Extract from the Land Register - a public document containing an inventory of real estate in a given cadastral area. It includes the location of the property, layout and plots of land and real estate, and data on property rights. It is issued by the cadastral office.​

Family house - a living object which, according to its layout, meets the requirements for family housing and below is more than half of the floor space and living space. RD can have up to three separate apartments, up to two above-ground and one underground floor and attic.​

Fixed interest rate - a fixed rate that applies throughout the repayment period or for the term specified in the contract. The rate is set to remain unchanged for the entire credit relationship or for a pre-agreed period (eg 1, 3, 5 or 10 years).

Floor area (flat) - The floor area of the apartment in the unit consists of the floor area of all rooms of the flat including all vertical and non-load-bearing structures inside the apartment (such as walls, columns, pillars, chimneys and similar vertical structures) The ground plan is defined by the inner face vertical constructions bounding the flat including their surface treatment. Also included is a floor area covered by embedded objects, such as cabinets in the apartment walls, bathtubs and other fixtures in the interior of the apartment. The floor area of the apartment is calculated as the area of the apartment plus the area of the cellar (not the cellar). The floor area does not include balcony, loggia or terraces.​

Floor area (non-residential space) - the area of all non-residential rooms or non-residential premises, including areas intended exclusively for use with non-residential premises or with non-residential premises. This area is counted by one half of the floor area of the internal galleries and other areas that are part of the space.​

Franchising - a form of business where the franchisor is provided with a business model, the right to use the brand, the performance under the name of the company, the use of know-how.

Future contract - a written commitment of the participants (the future seller and buyer) to conclude the purchase agreement on the agreed date and to agree on all its essential requirements. The future sales contract should therefore already include the draft purchase agreement itself.​

Gallery - A long corridor inside a building at the level of a pallet.

Geometric determination of real estate and cadastral territory - determination of the size, shape, boundaries of the real estate and cadastral area.

Geometric plan - technical background and inseparable part of the documents according to which registration is to be made in the cadastre of immovable objects if the subject of the entry is to be displayed in the cadastral map.

Gray house = timber house - a wooden house built from horizontally laid, prismed, trunks. Unlike log cabins, these buildings are typical of Czech mountains.​

Gross building - a finished house with a roof. The house is still without plaster, doors, windows, floors, etc. It is only a bare structure.

Ground plan - a diagram showing an imaginary section of the building at a height of one meter from the floor. From this illustration, you can see, for example, the material and wall thicknesses, the layout of the rooms, etc. The floor plan generally refers to the dimensions, dimensions and labels of individual rooms or areas, as well as information on individual elements.​

Guarantor - a natural or legal person who is liable to pay the debtor's debt to the creditor, unless the debtor itself does so for various reasons.​

Housing Cooperative - a cooperative securing the housing needs of its members.

Involuntary auction - this is an auction made on the proposal of an auction creditor whose claim is awarded an enforceable title - a court decision, a notarial record, a writ of execution or any other decision the execution of which is permitted by law.

Insolvency - the inability of the borrower to repay its debts to meet its financial obligations.

Insolvency Proceedings - Insolvency proceedings under insolvency law dealing with bankruptcy (insolvency) of the entity.

Landlord - Leases the tenant for a consideration to use it temporarily (at a given time) or to take advantage of it.​

Land area - total land area in m2 including built-up area​.

Land area without a family house - plot area in m2 excluding built-up area = pure garden (also depends on the information on the property sheet).​

Land Registry - Real estate data that includes an inventory, description, geometric and location design. The cadastre of real estates is a register of ownership and other property rights to real estate. The object of the real estate cadastre is land in the form of parcels, buildings connected with land with a fixed base, selected buildings connected with land with a fixed base and flats and non-residential premises defined as units under the Act on the ownership of apartments.

Lease - expresses the relationship between the landlord and the tenant. It is created on the basis of a lease contract - the lessor pays the lessee a flat or non-residential unit or property for consideration for a consideration.​

Lease agreement - a contract for which the lessor pays the lessee a consideration for a consideration (the amount) to use it at the agreed time.​

Legal authority - is a formal act where a decision (administrative or judicial) takes effect and is final, binding and unchangeable. The decision becomes final if the parties do not exercise their right of appeal. A decision without any legal force is invalid. Legal powers are not affected by extraordinary remedies.​

Living space (family house + apartment) - floor area expressed in m2 - without cellar, cleaning rooms, balcony.​

Loggia - A roofed / covered area in a building that is open and open from the side and does not protrude from the perimeter wall of the house.

Log house - a wooden house built from horizontally laid, mainly round, trunks.​

Loft (a loft apartment) - a large apartment that was created by rebuilding industrial premises. Typical are high ceilings and unobtrusive brick walls. It is the top floor or the attic in the building right under the roof.

Low Energy House - A building that has a heating energy consumption of 15-50 kWh / m² per year. It is operated according to ČSN 73 0540.​

Margins - the difference between the selling and acquisition price; Merchant's reward.

Market estimate - Real estate value on the market. The price that would be obtained when selling the same or similar assets.​

Market price - the price corresponding to the price at the sale of the same or similar item on a given date.​

Market valuation of a property - a price that corresponds to the selling price of the property in the same location on the same day.​

Mezzanine - floor located between the ground floor and 1st floor.

Maisonette (duplex apartment) - name for a flat in two or more levels, multi-storey apartment.

Mortgage Bank - Banking Institute specializing in providing mortgage loans.

Mortgage Loan (Mortgage) - Loan repayment is secured by a lien on property. Real estate securing may be an existing property or a property under construction. Real estate may also be provided by a person other than the debtor. A mortgage loan may be purposeful or non-purposeful, with the purpose of such a mortgage loan where the funds provided by the bank are used solely for the purpose of investing in housing or real estate.

Mortgage bonds - bonds whose nominal value and pro rata income are fully covered by receivables from mortgage loans or parts of such receivables. Mortgage bonds can only be issued by a bank authorized to do so. Only mortgage credit claims that do not exceed 70% of the price of pledged properties can be used to properly cover mortgage bonds.

Multigenerational house - a family house with two or more separate flats.​

Non-agricultural soil - land used for non-agricultural purposes, by its composition not suitable for cultivation (forest land, water areas, built-up areas and courtyards and other areas).​

Non-residential premises - rooms or sets of rooms which, according to the decision of the building office, are intended for a purpose other than housing, flats which have been approved for their use for non-residential purposes.

Non-residential space under construction - a room or a set of rooms approved as non-residential premises, an area designed for non-residential use if it is built in a dwelling with non-residential premises, which is at least in a stage of construction, that it is already enclosed outside by the perimeter walls and the roof structure.

Notarial custody - a legal institute consisting of depositing wills, securities or other documents with a notary or depositing money or documents with a notary in order to issue them to other persons. The storage of money and documents for the purpose of issuing them may typically serve to secure a commitment, for example, to secure a commitment to pay the purchase price for the property. Money or other documents received in a notarial custody shall be issued by a notary to the recipient only subject to the conditions set out in the agreement between the payer and the receiver upon acceptance into custody. Fee for the notarial safekeeping service is graded according to the amount of safekeeping. Its determination is governed by the Decree of the Ministry of Justice 196/2001 Coll.

Orientation number - house number facilitating orientation in the street, etc.

Owner of a real estate - a natural person (citizen) or a legal entity owning a property can prove this ownership by a statement from the land registry property list. According to the Civil Code, the owner has the right, within the limits of the law, to hold property, enjoy and enjoy the benefits and to dispose of it.​

Passive House - A building that meets voluntary, but stringent, energy savings criteria when running a house.

Parcel number - an indication of the parcel in the cadastral area. Parcels in each cadastral area are designated by numbers in either two numerical series, separately for land and building plots, or in one numerical series irrespective of the type of land.

Parcel Identification - Comparison of listing and plot of the same real estate (or group of parcels kept in the Land Register). If identification of parcels is not possible, the identification can not be done without setting the boundary of the plot in the terrain and without elaborating the geometric plan.

Physical person - the person acquires legal personality at the moment of birth, loses it at the moment of death. The natural person acquires legal capacity in the full age range (at the age of 18).

Personal ownership - the term is used to express the ownership of an apartment where the owner is not a cooperative or a city but a natural person.

Plot - Land boundary and overall image that is geometrically and locally defined and marked with a parcel number.

Plot of land - land, which is not a building plot.

Plot Size - Expression of the plots of the plot of the plot into the imaging plane in metric units; the magnitude of the measurement results from the geometric determination of the plot and is rounded to square meters. The plot of the parcel is recorded with the precision given by the methods by which it was detected; its refinement is without prejudice to legal relations with the land.​

Pre-emption right - the right of the entitled person to require that the thing be first offered to buy that person. Whoever sells a thing, subject to the buyer's offer to buy it if he wants to sell it, has a pre-emptive right. The contract must be concluded in writing and the pre-emptive right is acquired by the deposit in the land register. If the seller has not bought the thing offered by the buyer, he retains the pre-emptive right to his legal successor.​

Pre-mortgage loan - a loan allowing its later transformation into a mortgage loan (most often used for cooperative housing, which will be transferred to personal property within one year).​

Prefabricated house - a typical house built with pre-prepared parts. These parts are mounted on a concrete foundation.

Price Map - A map showing the price per m² of land or apartment in different parts of the republic or city. The price map is announced by the municipal or municipal authority.

Property appraisal - Expert's opinion, which expresses the value of the property.

Proposal for a deposit in the cadastre of real estate - a written request for the cadastral office to undertake, on the basis of a contract, declaration or agreement, the deposit of ownership, property or lien.

Purchase agreement - a contract between the seller and the buyer for the purpose of purchase. It must have a written form on real estate and must include the seller, buyer's identification, the subject of the purchase and the purchase price.

Purpose credit - credit granted to a predetermined account, which is not possible to change over the duration of the loan. For this loan, the benefit is a lower interest rate.​

Real estate - land or building linked to the ground by a solid foundation (house, cottage, cottage, garden, field, orchard, gazebo, etc.). Under this notion, we can also imagine flats and non-residential premises defined as units under the Act on Flats Ownership.

Real Estate Broker - A person who arranges for the sale or lease of real estate. It can specialize in either residential housing or commercial property.

Real Estate Records - an inventory and description of selected immovable property used prior to the cadastral law, which was conducted in 1964-1992 pursuant to Act No. 22/1964 Coll. Real things were geometrically displayed on land maps.

Receivable - Debt, claim / claim of the creditor to demand performance from the debtor, ie settlement of the debt.

Reconstruction - interventions in property / property that result in a change in its purpose or technical parameters.

Recreational object - building / recreational object (recreation), it is an individual cottage, cottage, eg pension, hotel.

Registration number - a number indicating buildings and objects that are used for occasional housing and are not marked with a descriptive number (recreational buildings, garden houses, chalets, etc.).

Renovation - A set of operations in a technological process that puts the worn or otherwise damaged thing (property) into its original geometric shape, dimension, etc.

Rent - Tenant rents the property to a third party with the consent of the owner. A sub-lease relationship can only arise in the case of a tenancy relationship; the consent of the landlord is important here.

Rent monthly - the price to be paid for the use of the rented apartment

Repairs Fund - consists of owners of flats who deposit monthly contributions according to the share of the owner of the apartment unit in the common areas of the house. This amount is stated on the one hand in the Owner's Statement and on the other in the Listing of the Land Registry (LV) of the relevant Land Registry Office. As a rule, the repairs fund is based on the total area of the dwelling unit, as the above share is also compiled according to this indicator. The repairs fund is intended for the maintenance and repair of common parts of the house, most of which are covered by other charges such as real estate taxes, building insurance and other fees whose share or redistribution is performed in the same way as the creation of the repairs fund.

Reservation agreement - reservation agreement is used for the transfer of real estate, especially in the case of sale through a real estate agency. It ensures that the seller (real estate agent) will no longer offer it to other bidders.

Residential building - a building intended to house more apartments accessible from a residential communications with a common main entrance from a public road, unless it is a family house. The apartment house is a residential building where housing functions predominate.

Reverse auctions - auctions that offer multiple bidders to one bidder. The auction publisher is interested in the subject of the auction to buy. Auction participants by reducing the bidding price compete for winning the auction and thus for the subsequent possibility of delivering the goods or services to be delivered.

Sheet of Ownership - a public document issued by the cadastral office, proving (in addition to the purchase agreement) the ownership of the property. On this list is entered the cadastral territory, part of the municipality, cadastral office, owner of the real estate, no. registration number, land parcel number, type of land, etc. There are also other data important for the ownership of the real estate, in particular on easements and other restrictions on property rights and on the acquisition of title to real estate.

Solvency - Payability to meet its obligations.

Sub-lease - the assignment of a real estate for the term specified in the contract (on sublease) or without determining the time only with the written consent of the landlord. This agreement must be in writing. Sub-lease is derived from the lease, the lessee leases the property to a third party with the consent of the owner.

Statement of the owner - unilateral legal action of the owner of the house, inserted into the cadastre of real estate, which the units are allocated in the house according to Act. No. 72/1994 Coll. (the Act on the ownership of apartments).

Tenant - a person who leases the property for a consideration on the basis of a lease to temporarily use it at a specified time.

Terrace - natural stage in the terrain, treated area of the roof of the building with railing and adapted for the movement of persons.

Terraced house - houses built side by side, according to the same plan, which have common supporting walls.

Territorial decision - decision of the building authority in the territorial proceedings under the Building Act. In the territorial decision, the building authority shall define the territory for the proposed purpose (eg the building account) and shall lay down conditions for the protection of public interests in the territory. In particular, it will ensure compliance with the objectives and objectives of spatial planning, including architectural and urban values in the area, factual and time coordination of individual buildings and other measures in the area, requirements for protection of health and the environment and decide on the objections of the parties. In the decision on the location of the building, the building authority may, in justified cases, reserve the submission of more detailed documents, design documentation or parts thereof; according to them, may provide additional conditions which must be included in the building permit.​

Territorial Plan - a type of spatial planning documentation that aims to spatially and functionally organize the landscape and its use. The Territorial Plan aims to find such assumptions as to allow for further construction and sustainable development, which is to find a balanced state between the interests of the environment, the economy and the community of people living in the territory.​

The intermediary contract - the intermediary undertakes to develop an activity aimed at the possibility of the applicant to conclude a specific contract with a third party, and the applicant undertakes to pay him / her a fee (commission).

Town plan of the municipality - a plan setting out the urban planning concept. It solves the functional use of the areas, their arrangement, determines the basic regulation of the territory and defines the boundaries of the territories on which they can still be built.​

Transfer Contract - Written relationship (contract) between the transferor and the transferee for the purpose of the transfer, acquisition. It must be in writing and must include details of the transferor, the transferee and the subject of the transfer. It is used, for example, in the form of an agreement for the transfer of rights and obligations associated with cooperative membership and the right to lease to the flat or a contract for a free transfer.

Turnkey house - house built according to prepared project documentation. When the finished building is delivered, the customer can immediately move to a new home.

Usable area (house) - Includes the area of the house and the area of all rooms outside the residential building including cellars and also the area of balconies, loggias, terraces, attic or land.

Usable area (flat) - It includes the area of the flat and the area of all rooms, including cellars, as well as the area of balconies, loggias, terraces, attic or land.

Villa - a family house (mostly luxury) located in the garden.

Voluntary auction - is done at the proposal of the auction owner (movable, immovable, etc.). The owner may be an authorized person authorized to deal with the subject of an auction on the basis of an authorization under a special legal regulation, so that the auctioneer may also be the liquidator or administrator of the bankruptcy estate.

Warranty - Liability arising from a unilateral written statement by the guarantor against the creditor that he will satisfy his claims if the debtor fails to fulfill his obligation.

Wooden building - a building that is largely built of wood (timbers, sandwich structures, log cabins).


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